Non-cooperation movement: The severe attitude of British in Jallianwala bagh massacre forced Mahatma Gandhi to initiate Non-cooperation movement. Non-cooperation movement in India led by Mahatma Gandhi and supported by Indian National Congress. It was based on the idea Satyagraha and Non-Violence.
In his famous book hind Swaraj Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians. They had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians denied cooperating, British rule in India would crumble within a year. These lines of mahatma Gandhi summarized in one word called Non-cooperation.
How could non- cooperation became a Non-cooperation movement?
Gandhiji suggested that the movement should disclose in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles. These titles were awarded by the British government. Then, in the case government used repression; a full civil disobedient campaign would be launched. Hence the movement started with the boycott of civil services, army, police, courts a, schools, legislative councils and foreign goods.
“In summer of 1920, Gandhiji and shaukat Ali toured to mobilize popular support for the movement.”
Congress supported Gandhiji in Non-cooperation movement, concerned about the proposal. initially, they were not enthusiastic to boycott the council election. This election scheduled to be held in November 1920. Congress feared that the movement might lead to popular violence. The scene of Rowlatt act and Jallianwala bagh massacre was unforgettable. This incident created a feeling of terror in the mind of ‘satyagrahi’. For a while there seemed no meeting point between the supporters and opponents of the movement.
Finally the Non-cooperation movement was adopted in December 1920. The place where it adopted was Nagpur.
Major Events of the Non-cooperation movement:
The Non-cooperation movement began in January 1921. Various social group participated all of them responded to the call of Swaraj. The movement started with the participation of middle calls people in the cities.
- The thousands of students left schools and colleges.
- Headmasters and teachers resigned.
- Lawyers gave up their legal practices.
- Gandhiji returned his title Kaiser-i-Hind.
- The council elections were boycotted in most provinces.
- Foreign goods were boycotted and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign goods reduced to half. Hence its value dropped from Rs. 102 crore to Rs. 57 crore.
- Charka and Khadi became symbol of this movement.
- Pure Indian Institution came into existence like Bihar Vidyapeeth. Leaders started to join Indian institutes.
Non-cooperation movement slowed down: Outcomes
But this movement slowed down for different reasons. Khadi cloth was expensive and people could not afford it. Hence Boycott of low-cost mill cloths posed a problem. Similarly they were unable to boycott institutions for too long. They did not find any alternative Indian institutions. These things slowed up the movement. Students and teachers began gradually moved back to the government Schools.
Later Gandhiji called off the movement due to Chauri chaura incident. It took place in Gorakhpur where 23 police man were killed by rebellions.